1Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA.
2Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA.
3Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA.
Primary liver cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Conventional therapies offer limited survival benefit despite improvements in locoregional liver-directed therapies, which highlights the underlying complexity of liver cancers. This review explores the latest research in primary liver cancer therapies, focusing on developments in genomics, molecular biomarkers, and artificial intelligence. Attention is also given to ongoing research and future directions of immunotherapy and locoregional therapies of primary liver cancers.