1Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
During 1990-2019, universal infant and childhood vaccination for hepatitis B resulted in a 99% decline in reported cases of acute hepatitis B among children, adolescents, and young adults aged <19 years in the United States; however, during 2010-2019, cases of acute hepatitis B plateaued or increased among adults aged ≥40 years. We conducted a topical review of surveillance strategies that will be critical to support the elimination of hepatitis B as a public health threat in the United States. In 2019, notifiable disease surveillance for acute hepatitis B showed continued transmission, especially among people who inject drugs and people with multiple sexual partners; rates were highest among people who were aged 30-59 years, non-Hispanic White, and living in rural areas. In contrast, newly reported cases of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) were highest among people who were aged 30-49 years, Asian or Pacific Islander, and living in urban areas. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey documented the highest CHB prevalence among non-US-born, non-Hispanic Asian people during 2013-2018; only one-third of people with CHB were aware of their infection. In the context of universal adult vaccination (2022) and screening (2023) recommendations for hepatitis B, better data are needed to support programmatic strategies to improve (1) vaccination rates among people with behaviors that put them at risk for transmission and (2) screening and linkage to care among non-US-born people. Surveillance for hepatitis B needs to be strengthened throughout the health care and public health systems.