1Dept of Emergency Medicine, San Luigi Gonzaga University Hospital, Orbassano, Turin, Italy. Electronic address: email@example.com.
2Dept. of Medical Sciences, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease affecting up to 30% of the general adult population. NAFLD encompasses a histological spectrum ranging from pure steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH can progress to cirrhosis and is becoming the most common indication for liver transplantation, as a result of increasing disease prevalence and of the absence of approved treatments. Lipidomic readouts of liver blood and urine samples from experimental models and from NASH patients disclosed an abnormal lipid composition and metabolism. Collectively, these changes impair organelle function and promote cell damage, necro-inflammation and fibrosis, a condition termed lipotoxicity. We will discuss the lipid species and metabolic pathways leading to NASH development and progression to cirrhosis, as well as and those species that can contribute to inflammation resolution and fibrosis regression. We will also focus on emerging lipid-based therapeutic opportunities, including specialized proresolving lipid molecules and macrovesicles contributing to cell-to-cell communication and NASH pathophysiology.