- 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Albany Medical Center, Albany, New York.
- 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Corewell Health William Beaumont University Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan.
- 3OrthoNY, Albany, New York.
- 4Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brigham Women's Health, Boston, Massachusetts.
Background: Patients infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) have high complication rates following total hip arthroplasty (THA). Advances in HCV therapy now enable clinicians to eradicate the disease; however, its cost-effectiveness from an orthopaedic perspective remains to be demonstrated. We sought to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing no therapy to direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy prior to THA among HCV-positive patients.
Methods: A Markov model was utilized to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of treating HCV with DAA prior to THA. The model was powered with event probabilities, mortality, cost, and quality-adjusted life year (QALY) values for patients with and without HCV that were obtained from the published literature. This included treatment costs, successes of HCV eradication, incidences of superficial or periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), probabilities of utilizing various PJI treatment modalities, PJI treatment success/failures, and mortality rates. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was compared to a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000/QALY.
Results: Our Markov model indicates that in comparison to no therapy, DAA prior to THA is cost-effective for HCV-positive patients. THA in the setting of no therapy and DAA added 8.06 and 14.39 QALYs at a mean cost of $28,800 and $115,800. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio associated with HCV DAA in comparison to no therapy was $13,800/QALY, below the willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000/QALY.
Conclusion: Hepatitis C treatment with DAA prior to THA is cost-effective at all current drug list prices. Given these findings, strong consideration should be given to treating patients for HCV prior to elective THA.
Level of evidence: Cost-effectiveness Analysis; Level III.