1Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, United States of America.
2Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, United States of America.
3Department of Endocrinology, University Hospitals, Cleveland, OH 44106, United States of America.
4Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, United States of America. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Aims: To investigate the prevalence and clinical risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) by liver scores.
Methods: A retrospective, unicenter, cross-sectional analysis was performed of adults with T1DM from 2015 to 2018. Steatosis scores (hepatic steatosis index-HSI, Framingham steatosis index-FSI) and fibrosis scores (FIB-4 index, AST-to-platelet ratio index-APRI) were associated with clinical parameters.
Results: We identified 447 patients, 38 ± 14.5 yrs, 54 % female, BMI 28 ± 5.9 kg/m2. Liver steatosis was prevalent at 61 % by HSI ≥ 36 and 52 % by FSI ≥ 23. A majority of these individuals had normal liver transaminase levels. The presence of advanced fibrosis was 4 % by APRI > 0.7 and 4 % by FIB-4 > 2.67. BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 correlated with steatosis scores (P < 0.001) but not fibrosis scores. Older age (≥40 yrs), hypertension, dyslipidemia, and history of cardiovascular disease were associated with steatosis markers. Only 21 % had any abdominal imaging, 2 % had hepatology referral and 1 % had a liver biopsy. Glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist was prescribed in 5 % and thiazolidinedione in 4 %.
Conclusion: Liver scores indicating steatosis but not fibrosis is common in adults with T1DM with obesity and/or metabolic syndrome, and is associated with older age, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. NAFLD is under-diagnosed and under-investigated; a minority of patients have had any liver evaluation or treatment.