1Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA.
2Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA; Gastroenterology Section, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Healthcare System, Palo Alto, CA, USA.
3University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine; Avera Medical Group Liver Disease and Transplant Institute, Avera McKennan University Hospital, Clinical Research Affairs Avera Transplant Institute, 1315 South Cliff Avenue, Sioux Falls, SD 57105, USA; VA Medical Center, Sioux Falls, SD, USA. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Disease spectrum varies from steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Currently, there are no approved medical therapies, and weight loss through lifestyle modifications remains a mainstay of therapy. Bariatric surgery is the most effective therapy for weight loss and has been shown to improve liver histology. Recently, endoscopic bariatric metabolic therapies have also emerged as effective treatments for patients with obesity and NAFLD. This review summarizes the role of bariatric surgery and endoscopic therapies in the management of patients with NAFLD.