1Infections and Immunoepidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, United States.
2Biostatistics Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, United States.
3Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, United States.
4School of Medicine and University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States.
5Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Health System, Bronx, NY, United States.
6Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Health System, Bronx, NY, United States.
7Department of Medicine, University of Miami Health System, Miami, FL, United States.
8Division of Neurology, Cook County Health, Chicago, IL, United States.
9Cook County Health, Hektoen Institute of Medicine, Chicago, IL, United States.
10Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, United States.
11Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States.
12Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Alabama-Birmingham Heersink School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, United States.
13Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States.
14Grady Health System, Infectious Diseases Program, Atlanta, GA, United States.
15Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, United States.
16Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, NY, United States.
Hepatitis D virus (HDV) requires co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) shares transmission routes with these viruses. Among 4,932 US women infected with or at-risk for HIV during 1994-2015, HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity was more common in women with HIV (2.8% vs. 1.2%; p = 0.001); HDV was more common among participants enrolled during 2013-2015 (p = 0.0004) and those with resolved rather than active hepatitis C (1.9% vs. 0.5%; p = 0.02). Among HBsAg-positive women (n = 117), HDV antibody prevalence was 22% and did not vary by HIV status; HDV infection was associated with the presence of advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis at enrollment (adjusted odds ratio, 5.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.46-22.29). Our results demonstrate the importance of HDV testing in HBV-infected US women.