1Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Henry Ford Health, Detroit, Michigan, United States.
2School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, United States.
3Department of Public Health Sciences, Henry Ford Health, Detroit, Michigan, United States.
4Center on Aging & Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States.
5Center for Integrated Health Care Research, Kaiser Permanente Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States.
6Biomedical Consulting Group LLC, Mahway, New Jersey, United States.
7Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, Oregon, United States.
8Department of Health Policy and Health Systems Research, Henry Ford Health, Detroit, Michigan, United States.
Research suggests a possible link between chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and the development of Parkinson's Disease (PD) and secondary Parkinsonism (PKM). We investigated the impact of antiviral treatment status (untreated, interferon [IFN] treated, direct-acting antiviral [DAA] treated) and outcome (treatment failure [TF] or sustained virological response [SVR]) on risk of PD/PKM among patients with HCV. Using data from the Chronic Hepatitis Cohort Study (CHeCS), we applied a discrete time-to-event approach with PD/PKM as the outcome. We performed univariate followed by a multivariable modelling that used time-varying covariates, propensity scores to adjust for potential treatment selection bias and death as a competing risk. Among 17,199 confirmed HCV patients, we observed 54 incident cases of PD/PKM during a mean follow-up period of 17 years; 3753 patients died during follow-up. There was no significant association between treatment status/outcome and risk of PD/PKM. Type 2 diabetes tripled risk (hazard ratio [HR] 3.05; 95% CI 1.75-5.32; p < .0001) and presence of cirrhosis doubled risk of PD/PKM (HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.31-3.47). BMI >30 was associated with roughly 50% lower risk of PD/PKM than BMI <25 (HR 0.43; 0.22-0.84; p = .0138). After adjustment for treatment selection bias, we did not observe a significant association between HCV patients' antiviral treatment status/outcome on risk of PD/PKM. Several clinical risk factors-diabetes, cirrhosis and BMI-were associated with PD/PKM.