1Department of Population and Public Health, University of Kansas, Wichita, KS, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org.
2Rocky Vista University College of Osteopathic Medicine, Denver, CO, USA.
3Hospital Medicine United Regional Hospital, Wichita Falls, TX, USA.
4Hospital Medicine Wesley Medical Center, Wichita, KS, USA.
5Guthrie Robert Packer Hospital, Sayre, PA, USA.
Fatty liver disease is characterized as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Fatty liver disease is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease worldwide among adults and children. It is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver cells. It has a genetically heterogenous background with complex pathogenesis and progressions and is accompanied by significant morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. NAFLD's risk factors include metabolic syndrome, abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, and atherogenic dyslipidemia. ALD is associated with the excessive consumption of alcohol. Here, we describe the functions of various proteins encoded by gene variants contributing to the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic fatty liver disease. Advancements in genome engineering technology have generated various in vivo and in vitro fatty liver disease models reflecting the genetic abnormalities contributing toward fatty liver disease. We will discuss currently developed different ALD and NAFLD models using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas9) genome editing tool.Furthermore, we will also discuss the salient features of CRISPR/Cas9 editing technology and Cas9 variants such as prime and base editors to replicate genetic topographies linked specifically to ALD and NAFLD. The advantages and limitations of currently available genome delivery methods necessary for optimal gene editing will also be discussed in this review. This review will provide the essential guidance for appropriate genome editing tool selection and proper gene delivery approaches for the effective development of ALD and NAFLD models, leading to the development of clinical therapeutics for fatty liver disease.