1Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701, United States.
2Department of Radiology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio 43210, United States. email@example.com.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Despite the advent of screening efforts and algorithms to stratify patients into appropriate treatment strategies, recurrence rates remain high. In contrast to first-line treatment for HCC, which relies on several factors, including clinical staging, tumor burden, and liver function, there is no consensus or general treatment recommendations for recurrent HCC (R-HCC). Locoregional therapies include a spectrum of minimally invasive liver-directed treatments which can be used as either curative or neoadjuvant therapy for HCC. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review of recent evidence using salvage loco-regional therapies for R-HCC after failed curative-intent.