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Tremelimumab (tremelimumab-actl; IMJUDO®), a cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) blocking antibody, is being developed by AstraZeneca, under license from Pfizer, for the treatment of a range of malignant tumours. Tremelimumab was approved in the USA in October 2022 in combination with durvalumab for the treatment of adult patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (uHCC). In addition, tremelimumab in combination with durvalumab and platinum-based chemotherapy was approved in the USA in November 2022 for the treatment of adult patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (mNSCLC) with no sensitizing epidermal growth factor receptor mutation or anaplastic lymphoma kinase genomic tumour aberrations. In December 2022, tremelimumab in combination with durvalumab received a Positive Opinion from the EU Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use for the first line treatment of adults with advanced or unresectable HCC. Tremelimumab in combination with durvalumab is under regulatory review for these indications in Japan and in other countries worldwide. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of tremelimumab leading to this first approval.