1Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie (CIRI), INSERM U1111, UMR_5308 CNRS-Université de Lyon (UCBL1), ENS de Lyon, Lyon, 69007, France. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
As a tribute to Dr Mike Bray, the following review of literature willbe mainly based on published data andconcepts, but will also contain my personal views, and in this respect could be more considered as a bioassay. Even though a cost-effective and excellent prophylactic vaccine exists since many years to protect against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, academic-researcher/drug-developers/stakeholders are still busy with the R&D of novel therapies that could eventually have an impact on its worldwide incidence. The Taiwanese experience have univocally demonstrated the effectiveness of constrained national HBV prophylactic vaccination programs to prevent the most dramatic HBV-induced end-stage liver disease, which is hepatocellular carcinoma; but yet the number of individuals chronically infected with the virus, for whom the existing prophylactic vaccine is no longer useful, remains high, with around 300 million individuals around the globe. In this review/bioassay, recent findings and novel concepts on prospective therapies against HBV infections will be discussed; yet it does not have the pretention to be exhaustive, as "pure immunotherapeutic concepts" will be mainly let aside (or referred to other reviews) due to a lack of expertise of this writer, but also due to the lack of, or incremental, positive results in clinical trials as-off today with these approaches.