1Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver tumor that typically occurs in the setting of chronic liver disease/cirrhosis. Treatment modalities for HCC have evolved and given the variety of treatment options, a multi-disciplinary approach requiring input from surgical, medical, and radiation oncology, hepatology, and interventional radiology is necessary. Multiple advances have been made over the last decade regarding treatment of HCC, especially advanced disease. Resection and transplantation remain as cornerstone curative-intent treatment options. For patients who are not candidates for curative-intent therapy, exciting progress has been made in molecular and cellular approaches to systemic therapy for HCC including immunotherapies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Although the prognosis for advanced HCC remains poor, the armamentarium of therapies has increased, and valuable years of life can be gained with these therapies. While the main therapeutic modality for early-stage disease remains resection, multimodal immunotherapy has emerged as first-line treatment for advanced disease. We herein review different clinical and molecular treatment modalities related to the treatment of HCC, as well as provide insights into future directions for HCC treatment. We highlight how research and progress are needed to move into a new era of molecular and cellular treatments.