1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA.
2Department of Internal Medicine, Loyola Medicine/MacNeal Hospital, Chicago, IL, USA.
3Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.
4Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA.
5Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA, USA.
6Division of Internal Medicine, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT, USA.
7University of Toledo Libraries, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA.
8University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, OH, USA.
9Department of Medicine and Surgery at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA (University of California Los Angeles), Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Background: Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is a procedure typically utilized to treat refractory ascites and variceal bleeding. However, TIPS can lead to significant complications, most commonly hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Advanced age has been described as a risk factor for HE, as the elderly population tends to have decreased cognitive reserve and increased sarcopenia. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature to summarize the association between advanced age and risk of adverse events after undergoing TIPS.
Methods: A comprehensive search strategy to identify reports of specific outcomes (HE, 30-day and 90-day mortality, and 30-day readmission due to HE) in elderly patients after undergoing TIPS was developed in Embase (Embase.com, Elsevier). We compared outcomes and performed separate data analyses for patients aged < 70 vs. > 70 years and patients aged < 65 vs. > 65 years.
Results: Six studies with a total of 1,591 patients met our inclusion criteria and were included in the final meta-analysis. Three studies divided patients by age < 65 vs. > 65 years, with a total of 816 patients who were 54% male. The remaining three studies divided patients by age < 70 vs. > 70 years, with a total of 775 patients who were 63% male. Results demonstrated a significantly lower risk of post-TIPS HE (risk ratio (RR): 0.42, confidence interval (CI): 0.185 - 0.953, P = 0.03, I2 = 49%), 30-day mortality (RR: 0.37, CI: 0.188 - 0.74, P = 0.005, I2 = 0%), and 90-day mortality (RR: 0.35, CI: 0.24 - 0.49, P = 0.001, I2 = 0%) in patients aged > 70 vs. < 70 years, as well as a trend towards lower risk of 30-day readmission due to HE. There was no significant difference in post-TIPS HE, 30-day or 90-day mortality, or 30-day readmission due to HE between patients aged < 65 vs. > 65 years.
Conclusion: Age > 70 years is associated with significantly higher rates of HE and 30-day and 90-day mortality rates in patients after undergoing TIPS, as well as a trend towards higher 30-day readmission due to HE.