1Université de Paris-Cité, Department of Hepatology, Hôpital Beaujon, AP-HP, CRI, INSERM UMR 1149, Clichy, France.
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a small RNA virus which needs Hepatitis B Surface Antigen for its envelope, for entry into hepatocytes and secretion. HDV chronic infection affects around 12 million people worldwide. HDV infection is believed to be the most severe form of viral hepatitis, with a high risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Pegylated interferons has been used and recommended by guidelines, although not approved, with low efficacy and poor tolerability. Bulevirtide (entry inhibitor) has been recently conditionally approved by the European Medicines Agency. These treatments have many advantages, but they have also limitations since there are non-responders to these previous therapies. There is an urgent need to develop new drugs. In this article, we review antiviral treatments under development for HDV chronic infection (except bulevirtide reviewed in a specific article), including those in the HBV cure programme, outlining their respective mechanisms-of-action.