1Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Gastroenterology and Hepatology Unit, University of Naples "Federico II", Naples, Italy. Electronic address: email@example.com.
2Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy; Gastroenterology Unit, Azienda Ospedale-Università Padova, Padova, Italy.
3Department of Public Health, Division of Hepato-Bilio-Pancreatic, Minimally Invasive and Robotic Surgery, University of Naples "Federico II", Naples, Italy.
4Gastrointestinal and Liver Unit, Department of Health Promotion Sciences Maternal and Infantile Care, Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
5Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Gastroenterology and Hepatology Unit, University of Naples "Federico II", Naples, Italy.
6Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.
7Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy; Scientific Institute for Research, Hospitalization and Healthcare, Negrar, Verona, Italy.
Background and aim: Metabolic dysfunctions, particularly hyperlipidemia, are a common finding in Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC). In presence of metabolic components of fatty-liver-disease (MAFLD), the liver fibrosis progression risk is higher. The aim of this study was to evaluate lifestyle of PBC patients compared to controls.
Methods: In a prospective, multicenter study 107 PBC patients were enrolled; among these, 54 subjects were age-and sex-matched with 54 controls with a propensity-score-matching-analysis. Eating habits and physical activity were evaluated, respectively, with a food-frequency-questionnaire and with a short pre-validated-questionnaire. The adherence to Mediterranean diet was assessed with the alternate Mediterranean diet score.
Results: The total fat intake was higher in controls than in PBC (p=0.004), unless above the national recommendations in both groups. Moreover, in PBC monounsaturated-fat and polyunsaturated-fatty-acid intakes and the adherence to Mediterranean diet were significantly lower than in controls (p<0.001, p=0.005 and p<0.001 respectively). Regarding physical activity, PBC subjects had a sedentary behavior as well as controls.
Conclusions: The lifestyle of both PBC and controls is at high risk of developing MAFLD. Therefore, hepatologists should regularly evaluate eating habits and physical activity in PBC patients and promote a lifestyle change to reduce liver disease progression risk.