1Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md.
2Division of Infection Disease, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md.
3Division of Transplant Surgery, Department of Surgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY.
4Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, Minneapolis, Minn.
Objective: Heart transplants (HTs) from hepatitis C virus (HCV)-viremic donors to HCV-seronegative recipients (HCV D+/R-) have good 6-month outcomes, but practice uptake and long-term outcomes overall and among candidates on mechanical circulatory support (MCS) have yet to be established.
Methods: Using the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, we identified US adult HCV-seronegative HT recipients (R-) from 2015 to 2021. We classified donors as HCV-seronegative (D-) or HCV-viremic (D+). We used multivariable regression to compare post-HT extracorporeal membranous oxygenation, dialysis, pacemaker, acute rejection, and risk of post-HT mortality between HCV D+/R- and HCV D-/R-. Models were adjusted for donor, recipient, and transplant characteristics and center HT volume. We performed subgroup analyses of recipients bridged with MCS.
Results: From 2015 to 2021, the number of HCV D+/R- HT increased from 1 to 181 and the number of centers performing HCV D+/R- HT increased from 1 to 60. Compared with HCV D-/R- recipients, HCV D+/R- versus D-/R- recipients overall and among patients bridged with MCS had similar odds of post-HT extracorporeal membranous oxygenation, dialysis, pacemaker, and acute rejection; and mortality risk at 30 days, 1 year, and 3 years (all P > .05). High center HT volume but not HCV D+/R- volume (<5 vs >5 in any year) was associated with lower mortality for HCV D+/R- HT.
Conclusions: HCV D+/R- and D-/R- HT have similar outcomes at 3 years' posttransplant. These results underscore the opportunity provided by HCV D+/R- HT, including among the growing population bridged with MCS, and the potential benefit of further expanding use of HCV+ allografts.