1Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Changi General Hospital, Singapore.
2Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore.
3Division of Gastroenterology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
Acute variceal bleeding (AVB) is associated with significant short-term morbidity and mortality. Pre-emptive transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (p-TIPSS) is recommended to prevent rebleeding in AVB patients with a high risk of rebleeding. Despite the benefit of preventing rebleeding and de-novo ascites, the uptake of p-TIPSS remains low because logistic challenges in the real-world setting. In this review, we summarize the current evidence and controversies on p-TIPSS including patient selection for p-TIPSS, particularly in the setting of NASH cirrhosis and acute-on-chronic liver failure, the role of sarcopenia, renal impairment in the setting of p-TIPSS. Finally, we summarize both pharmacological and nonpharmacological strategies to optimize outcomes in patients undergoing p-TIPSS.