1Department of Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies "G. F. Ingrassia", Cannizzaro Hospital, University of Catania, 95126 Catania, Italy.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent, multifactorial, and poorly understood liver disease with an increasing incidence worldwide. NAFLD is typically asymptomatic and coupled with other symptoms of metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of NAFLD is rising in tandem with the prevalence of obesity. In the Western hemisphere, NAFLD is one of the most prevalent causes of liver disease and liver transplantation. Recent research suggests that gut microbiome dysbiosis may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD by dysregulating the gut-liver axis. The so-called "gut-liver axis" refers to the communication and feedback loop between the digestive system and the liver. Several pathological mechanisms characterized the alteration of the gut-liver axis, such as the impairment of the gut barrier and the increase of the intestinal permeability which result in endotoxemia and inflammation, and changes in bile acid profiles and metabolite levels produced by the gut microbiome. This review will explore the role of gut-liver axis disruption, mediated by gut microbiome dysbiosis, on NAFLD development.