1Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, USA (Daryl Ramai).
2St George's University School of Medicine, True Blue, Grenada, West Indies (Alexandra Shapiro).
3Section of Gastroenterology, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy (Antonio Facciorusso).
4Operative Unit of Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy (Claudia Bareggi, Donatella Gambini, Erika Rijavec, Gianluca Tomasello, Barbara Galassi, Michele Ghidini).
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Liver cancer is the third most common cause of cancer-associated death. Advances in the last decade have provided more options for treating hepatocellular carcinoma. The use of immune checkpoint inhibitors represents a leap forward and broadens the armamentarium for clinicians. In this article, we provide a state-of-the-art review of molecular therapy. We also detail the mechanisms of checkpoint inhibitor therapy, which blocks the interaction of programmed cell death receptor protein with programmed cell death ligand, reducing the immune checkpoint activity on regulatory T cells, thereby inhibiting tumor cell growth.