1Division of Gastroenterology, Innovative Center for Health and Nutrition in Gastroenterology (ICHANGE), Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, affecting up to one-third of the global population. The disease is defined by excess fat deposition in the liver and has a strong correlation with metabolic syndrome, which, in turn, is also a risk factor for disease progression, including the development of steatohepatitis, advanced fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although a number of medications are being explored for disease mitigation, nothing is currently approved, and the mainstay of therapy remains dietary and lifestyle intervention that promotes weight loss as well as management of comorbid conditions. The landscape that guides care for patients with NAFLD continues to evolve. Clinicians caring for these patients need to consider underlying disease state and nutrition risk in addition to concurrent related diagnoses, such as insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia, when formulating treatment plans. The following is a comprehensive review of the current dietary and nutrition considerations in the management of patients with NAFLD, with a special emphasis on implications for the practicing clinician.