1Department of Gastroenterology and Digestive Oncology, Hôpital Cochin, AP-HP, 75014 Paris, France; Université Paris Cité, 75006 Paris, France. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
2Université Paris Cité, 75006 Paris, France; Department of Radiology, Hôpital Cochin, AP-HP, 75014 Paris, France.
3Department of Gastroenterology and Digestive Oncology, Hôpital Cochin, AP-HP, 75014 Paris, France; Université Paris Cité, 75006 Paris, France.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer and currently the third-leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Recently, artificial intelligence (AI) has emerged as an important tool to improve clinical management of HCC, including for diagnosis, prognostication and evaluation of treatment response. Different AI approaches, such as machine learning and deep learning, are both based on the concept of developing prediction algorithms from large amounts of data, or big data. The era of digital medicine has led to a rapidly expanding amount of routinely collected health data which can be leveraged for the development of AI models. Various studies have constructed AI models by using features extracted from ultrasound imaging, computed tomography imaging and magnetic resonance imaging. Most of these models have used convolutional neural networks. These tools have shown promising results for HCC detection, characterization of liver lesions and liver/tumor segmentation. Regarding treatment, studies have outlined a role for AI in evaluation of treatment response and improvement of pre-treatment planning. Several challenges remain to fully integrate AI models in clinical practice. Future research is still needed to robustly evaluate AI algorithms in prospective trials, and improve interpretability, generalizability and transparency. If such challenges can be overcome, AI has the potential to profoundly change the management of patients with HCC. The purpose of this review was to sum up current evidence on AI approaches using imaging for the clinical management of HCC.