1Department of Radiology, Northwestern Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
2Thoracic and GI Malignancies Branch, Center for Cancer Research, NCI, Bethesda MD, USA; NCI CCR Liver Cancer Program, Center for Cancer Research, NCI, Bethesda MD, USA.
Locoregional therapies and system treatments are the most used treatment options to treat patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Interventional radiologists have improved and developed novel protocols and devices for both intra-tumoral ablative approaches in curative intent and various trans-arterial intra-hepatic treatment options, which have continuously improved patient outcomes. Two large phase 3 randomized clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of different immune checkpoint inhibitors either as single agent or in combination in the first line setting and immunotherapy has become the standard first line treatment option for patients with HCC. Here we present advances and perspectives in the area of interventional radiology (IR) and immune-oncology (IO). We summarize results from recent studies and provide an overview of ongoing studies in IR and IO. Based on the significant advances in both areas, we propose that IR and IO need to cover the emerging "discipline" of IR-IO, in which we develop and test novel approaches to combine locoregional therapies with immunotherapy, in order to eventually develop sufficient evidence for them to be considered standard of care option for HCC patients in the near future.