1Department of Health Sciences, Unit of Microbiology, University "Magna Graecia" of Catanzaro, Catanzaro 88100, Italy.
2Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Unit of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, "Magna Graecia" University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro 88100, Italy.
3Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Unit of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, "Magna Graecia" University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro 88100, Italy. email@example.com.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are both RNA viruses with a tropism for liver parenchyma but are also capable of extrahepatic manifestations. Hepatitis E is usually a viral acute fecal-oral transmitted and self-limiting disease presenting with malaise, jaundice, nausea and vomiting. Rarely, HEV causes a chronic infection in immunocompromised persons and severe fulminant hepatitis in pregnant women. Parenteral HCV infection is typically asymptomatic for decades until chronic complications, such as cirrhosis and cancer, occur. Despite being two very different viruses in terms of phylogenetic and clinical presentations, HEV and HCV show many similarities regarding possible transmission through organ transplantation and blood transfusion, pathogenesis (production of antinuclear antibodies and cryoglobulins) and response to treatment with some direct-acting antiviral drugs. Although both HEV and HCV are well studied individually, there is a lack of knowledge about coinfection and its consequences. The aim of this review is to analyze current literature by evaluating original articles and case reports and to hypothesize some interactions that can be useful for research and clinical practice.