- 1Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Nepean Hospital, Penrith, Australia.
- 2Nepean Clinical School, The University of Sydney, Penrith, Australia.
- 3The Centre for Digestive Health and Neurogastroenterology, Hunter Medical Research Institute, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia
Background/aims: Maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnant patients with Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have been largely unexplored. To determine the level of evidence associated with maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnant women with NAFLD.
Methods: We conducted a comprehensive literature search. The studies included pregnant patients with a previous, current or subsequent diagnosis of NAFLD. We used a random-effects model using odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Results: Twenty-two studies, with 13,641 female NAFLD patients were reviewed. The results highlight that NAFLD patients had a statistically significant increased likelihood of baseline diabetes mellitus (OR, 6.00; 95% CI, 2.21-16.31; P<0.001; n=7), baseline Hypertension (OR, 3.75; 95% CI, 2.13-6.59; P<0.001; n=4), gestational hypertension (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.03-3.26; P=0.041; n=2), and pre-eclampsia (OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.46-4.04; P=0.001; n=3). The odds for a past and current history of gestational diabetes mellitus were OR, 3.78; 95% CI, 2.21-6.44; P<0.001; n=5 and OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 1.97- 5.31; P<0.001; n=6, respectively. As for fetal outcomes, pregnant NAFLD patients were significantly more likely to have a premature birth (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.44-2.85; P<0.001; n=4), large for gestational age birth (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.72-2.37; P<0.001; n=2) or a history of prior miscarriage or abortion (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02-1.30; P=0.02; n=2). Egger's regression revealed no evidence of publication bias (P>0.05).
Conclusion: This meta-analysis provides pooled evidence that NAFLD is associated with a substantial increase in maternal diabetic and hypertensive complications and multiple adverse fetal outcomes. This data is important for clinicians managing these patients before, during and after pregnancy.