1Department of Gastroenterology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, 40202, USA.
2Center for Digestive Health, Virginia Mason Franciscan Health, 1100 9th Ave., Seattle, WA, 98101, USA.
3Center for Digestive Health, Virginia Mason Franciscan Health, 1100 9th Ave., Seattle, WA, 98101, USA. email@example.com.
Viral hepatitis remains a significant global health problem. All forms of viral hepatitis A through E (A-E) can lead to acute symptomatic infection, while hepatitis B and C can lead to chronic infection associated with significant morbidity and mortality related to progression to cirrhosis, end-stage-liver disease, and liver cancer. Viral hepatitis occurs worldwide, though certain regions are disproportionately affected. We now, remarkably, have highly effective curative regimens for hepatitis C, and safe and tolerable medications to suppress hepatitis B activity, and to prevent liver damage and slow disease progression. We have effective vaccines for hepatitis A and B which provide long-lasting immunity, while improved sanitation and awareness can curb outbreaks of hepatitis A and E. However, more effective and available preventive and curative strategies are needed to achieve global eradication of viral hepatitis. This review provides an overview of the epidemiology, transmission, diagnosis, and clinical features of each viral hepatitis with a primary focus on current and future therapeutic and curative options.