Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection rates are rising in the U.S. despite widely available tools to identify and effectively treat nearly all of these cases. This cross-sectional study aimed to use laboratory data to evaluate the prevalence of HCV diagnoses among active component U.S. military service members, describe the characteristics of those diagnosed with HCV, and evaluate the adherence of their care to current standards of practice. All service members in the active component U.S. military between 1 January and 31 December 2020 were included in the study population. The primary outcome was an HCV diagnosis at any time during military service, with secondary outcomes of HCV treatment and sustained virologic response (SVR). The initial case-finding algorithm used laboratory data to identify HCV patients seen in infectious disease and gastrointestinal disease clinics in military treatment facilities (MTFs) (direct care); this was supplemented with additional data to assess and correct for undercounting from cases occurring outside MTFs (purchased care). Thirty active component service members in 2020 had been diagnosed with HCV infection during their military service via direct care, or an estimate of 68 cases after correcting for additional cases from purchased care; this number represents only 12% of the expected number of infections based on previous studies. Of the 30 cases treated via direct care, 28 (93%) received HCV treatment, with 27 of those 28 (96%) achieving SVR. Changes to HCV screening policy for military accessions should be considered in order to effectively identify and treat asymptomatic HCV infections that would otherwise go undetected.