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Novel Therapies of Hepatitis B and D
Microorganisms. 2021 Dec 17;9(12):2607. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms9122607.
Iman Waheed Khan1, Mati Ullah Dad Ullah1, Mina Choudhry1, Mukarram Jamat Ali1, Muhammad Ashar Ali1, Sam L K Lam2, Pir Ahmad Shah3, Satinder Pal Kaur1, Daryl T Y Lau1
Liver Center, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Liver Center, Department of Medicine, Department of Pharmacy, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health issue and is a major cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis D virus (HDV) requires the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) to replicate. The eradication of HBV, therefore, can also cure HDV. The current therapies for chronic hepatitis B and D are suboptimal and cannot definitely cure the viruses. In order to achieve functional or complete cure of these infections, novel therapeutic agents that target the various sites of the viral replicative cycle are necessary. Furthermore, novel immunomodulatory agents are also essential to achieve viral clearance. Many of these new promising compounds such as entry inhibitors, covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) inhibitors, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), capsid assembly modulators and nucleic acid polymers are in various stages of clinical developments. In this review article, we provided a comprehensive overview of the structure and lifecycle of HBV, the limitations of the current therapies and a summary of the novel therapeutic agents for both HDV and HBV infection.