1Department of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Republic of Korea.
2Division of Cardiovascular Disease, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, USA.
3Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY, USA.
Background: D-penicillamine (D-pen) is a copper-chelating drug and has immune-modulatory properties. D-pen is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, Wilson's disease, and kidney stones (cystinuria). However, associated adverse events (AEs) of D-pen treatment are frequent and often serious. Therefore, a comprehensive assessment of the safety profile of D-pen is urgently needed.
Research design and methods: We identified and analyzed AEs associated with D-pen between April-1970 to July-2020 from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) databases and calculated the reported odds ratio (ROR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using the disproportionality analysis.
Results: A total of 9,150,234 AEs related to drugs were reported in the FAERS database, of which 542 were related to D-Pen. We report that D-pen was associated with dystonia (ROR: 20.52; 95%CI: 12.46-33.80), drug hypersensitivity (ROR: 5.42; 95%CI: 3.72-7.90), pancytopenia (ROR: 10.20; 95%CI: 5.61-18.56), joint swelling (ROR: 9.07; 95%CI: 5.51-14.94), renal-impairment (ROR: 6.68; 95%CI: 3.67-12.15), dysphagia (ROR: 5.05; 95%CI: 2.76-8.89), aggravation of condition (ROR: 4.16; 95%CI: 2.60-6.67), congestive cardiac failure (ROR: 4.04; 95%CI: 2.22-7.35), peripheral edema (ROR: 3.77; 95%CI: 2.17-6.55), tremor (ROR: 3.46; 95%CI: 2.00-6.01), pyrexia (ROR: 3.46; 95%CI: 2.00-6.01), and gait disturbance (ROR: 2.41; 95%CI: 1.29-4.52).
Conclusions: Patients taking D-pen require close monitoring of renal function, blood counts, immunity, liver, cardiac function, and neurological function. D-pen suppresses immune system which maximizes the risk of infection.