1Bouve College of Pharmacy, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA.
2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.
3Department of Infectious Disease, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.
4Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA.
Purpose: Current evidence regarding efficacy and safety of human papillomavirus 9-valent (9vHPV), recombinant zoster (RZV), and CpG-adjuvanted recombinant hepatitis B (HepB-CpG) vaccines in adults with human immunodeficiency virus, inflammatory bowel disease, solid organ transplant, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant is reviewed.
Summary: Patients immunocompromised due to underlying disease or treatment are at increased risk for infections; however, insufficient understanding of various vaccines' efficacy, safety, indications, and contraindications in this population has led to suboptimal vaccination rates. The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) published guidelines on vaccines in immunocompromised populations in 2013. Since then, several advances have been made including an expanded indication with 9vHPV for use in males and females 9 to 45 years old, and the introduction of new vaccines for herpes zoster (RZV) and hepatitis B (HepB-CpG). Pharmacists are instrumental to vaccination efforts and may benefit from a review of recent vaccine updates.
Conclusion: The 9vHPV can be used in men and women ages 9 to 45 years old regardless of immune status. RZV safety and efficacy in several immunocompromised populations has been demonstrated; however, manufacturers and major societies have yet to update their recommendations. HepB-CpG may be used in most immunocompromised patients yet remains under-utilized.