1Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Koc University School of Medicine, 34010, Istanbul, Turkey. email@example.com.
2Department of Medicine, Koc University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.
3Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Suleyman Demirel University School of Medicine, Isparta, Turkey.
4Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, USA.
5Nephrology Clinic, Dialysis and Renal Transplant Center, 'C.I. PARHON' University Hospital, and 'Grigore T. Popa' University of Medicine, Iasi, Romania.
6Department of Cardiology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.
7Dialysis Unit, School of Medicine, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Avd. Reyes Católicos 2, 28040, Madrid, Spain.
The most common cause of liver disease worldwide is now non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD refers to a spectrum of disease ranging from steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, causing cirrhosis, and ultimately hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the impact of NAFLD is not limited to the liver. NAFLD has extra-hepatic consequences, most notably, cardiovascular and renal disease. NAFLD and chronic kidney disease share pathogenic mechanisms including insulin resistance, lipotoxicity, inflammation and oxidative stress. Not surprisingly, there has been a recent surge in efforts to manage NAFLD in an integrated way that not only protects the liver but also delays comorbidities such as chronic kidney disease. This concept of simultaneously addressing the main disease target and comorbidities is key to improve outcomes, as recently demonstrated by clinical trials of SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP1 receptor agonists in diabetes. HIF activators, already marketed in China, also have the potential to protect both liver and kidney, as suggested by preclinical data. This review concisely discusses efforts at identifying common pathogenic pathways between NAFLD and chronic kidney disease with an emphasis on potential paradigm shifts in diagnostic workup and therapeutic management.