Division of Immunology and Infection, John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
Translational Research Unit, Canberra Hospital, Garran, ACT, Australia.
Department of Immunology, Canberra Hospital, Garran, ACT, Australia.
Department of Immunology, Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool, NSW, Australia.
Department of Renal Medicine, The Canberra Hospital, Garran, ACT, Australia.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk of hepatitis B infection and impaired seroconversion to hepatitis B vaccine (HBV). Studies examining augmented vaccine schedules to enhance seroconversion have so far been inconclusive. Furthermore, the defects responsible for impaired vaccine immunity in CKD have not yet been identified.
We studied serological and cellular responses to HBV in CKD to identify a defect in vaccine-induced cellular responses that could account for impaired seroconversion in CKD and clarify the effects of an augmented vaccine dose schedule. We compared these results with responses to seasonal influenza vaccination (Fluvax).
We found a clear benefit in rates and magnitude of seroconversion after an augmented 40mcg HBV dose schedule in CKD. This permitted comparison of responders and non-responders. Serological non-responders with CKD exhibited reduction in CXCR3+CCR6- CXCR5+ memory T cells at baseline. Unlike Fluvax, HBV elicited a poor plasmablast (PB) response. Both vaccinations induced activation of the CXCR3+CCR6- CCR7- subset of circulating T follicular helper cells (cTFH), although this response was impaired in CKD after HBV.
CKD confers a specific T cell defect that contributes to the impaired seroconversion to HBV.