Department of HIV and Global Hepatitis Program World Health Organization Geneva Switzerland.
Médecins Sans Frontières Access Campaign Geneva Switzerland.
Department of Surgery and Cancer St Mary's Hospital, Imperial College London London United Kingdom.
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology Imperial College London London United Kingdom.
Médecins Sans Frontières Brussels Belgium.
Department of Infectious Diseases and Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine University of Berne Berne Switzerland.
Successful treatment outcomes for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection requires high levels of adherence to treatment. We searched three databases and abstracts from two conferences up to January 2018 for studies reporting the proportion of patients who were adherent to HBV antiviral therapy and pooled data using random effects meta-analysis. We included 30 studies, providing data for 23,823 patients. Overall, adherence to treatment was 74.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 67.1%-82.1%). Adherence was similar in high-income settings (75.1%; 95% CI, 65.4%-85.0%) and in low-income and middle-income settings (72.9%; 95% CI, 57.8%-88.0%). Reported barriers to adherence included forgetting, limited understanding of the importance of adherence, and change to routine. Conclusion : There is a need to reinforce assessment and reporting of adherence as a routine part of HBV care and to assess the extent to which evidence-based interventions to improve adherence to medication for human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] and other chronic diseases are effective for HBV infection.