Byington CL, Maldonado YA, Barnett ED, Campbell JD, Davies HD, Lynfield R, Munoz FM, Nolt D, Nyquist AC, O'Leary S, Rathore MH, Sawyer MH, Steinbach WJ, Tan TQ, Zaoutis TE, Watterberg K, Benitz W, Hand I, Eichenwald E, Poindexter B, Stewart DL, Aucott SW, Puopolo KM, Goldsmith JP. Pediatrics. 2017 Aug 28. pii: e20171870. doi: 10.1542/peds.2017-1870. [Epub ahead of print]
After the introduction of the hepatitis B vaccine in the United States in 1982, a greater than 90% reduction in new infections was achieved. However, approximately 1000 new cases of perinatal hepatitis B infection are still identified annually in the United States. Prevention of perinatal hepatitis B relies on the proper and timely identification of infants born to mothers who are hepatitis B surface antigen positive and to mothers with unknown status to ensure administration of appropriate postexposure immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis Bvaccine and immune globulin. To reduce the incidence of perinatal hepatitis B transmission further, the American Academy of Pediatrics endorses the recommendation of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that all newborn infants with a birth weight of greater than or equal to 2000 g receive hepatitis B vaccine by 24 hours of age.