- 1Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, University Hospital UKGM, Giessen, Germany.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) is rapidly becoming the most common cause of chronic liver disease in Western Countries, and a similar trend is expected in Eastern Countries within the next years. This review focusses on the definition of NAFLD and NASH, possible screening mechanisms and the question who should be screened. Still there is a need for non-invasive diagnostic tools and biomarkers for NASH that can quickly and easily diagnose the severity of NAFLD, monitor liver changes, and identify high risk patients. In addition, treatment strategies are discussed as well as the clientele, who should be treated. There are currently no drugs approved for NAFLD. Successful clinical studies with e.g., obeticholic acid and new substances (e.g., cenicriviroc with anti-inflammatory activity) have already been published. If weight-reducing diets and a change in lifestyle fail in the case of severe obesity, bariatric surgery (e.g., gastric bypass or stomach reduction) should be considered. In the case of manifest type 2 diabetes, metformin can be used as an oral antidiabetic of first choice, and GLP-1 agonists have shown beneficial effects on NAFLD. However, up to now the prevention of overweight and lack of exercise targets the most important risk factors. This review aims to identify therapy relevant risk factors, management strategies, and open questions concerning NAFLD patients.