1Hepatology Department, Luton and Dunstable University Hospital, Luton, UK.
Hepatitis delta (HDV) infection is either acquired simultaneously with, or as a superinfection to, existing Hepatitis B (HBV). It leads to a serious form of chronic viral hepatitis and accelerated liver-related morbidity and mortality including hepatocellular carcinoma. Current treatment regimes propose Pegylated interferon-alpha for 48 weeks however sustained virological response (SVR) rates remain low. We report a patient who initially responded to Pegylated interferon treatment for HBV-HDV co-infection. Although initial improvement in viraemia from both virsues was seen, SVR was not achieved with ongoing progression of liver injury biochemically. However, the summative effect of a second course of Pegylated interferon 2 years later led to HDV cure (SVR 12 months post-treatment), very low level HBV carrier status (with persistently undetectable viral load) and ongoing biochemical normalization. This case illustrates a successful treatment strategy for persistent HBV-HDV co-infection where proposed treatment regimes elicit an initial response but SVR is not achieved.