1Department of Family Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
2Department of Mathematics, College of Nature Sciences, Ajou University, Suwon, South Korea.
3Department of Urology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
4Department of Urology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
To evaluate the association between the degree of fatty liver disease and severity of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in healthy middle-aged males.
A total of 1943 Korean men aged between 40 and 70 years who had participated in the voluntary health check program from January 2012 to December 2014 were enrolled. LUTS were evaluated with the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. Abdominal ultrasonography was performed to assess non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Trend test was performed to investigate the association between the degree of fatty liver disease and LUTS severity. Differences between the two groups were analyzed by chi-square test, and we adjusted for confounding factors with ANCOVA and logistic regression test.
The mean age was 51.79 ± 7.03 years, and 1026 (52.8%) subjects were determined to have NAFLD. Differences in categorical variables, between NAFLD grades and IPSS grades, were analyzed by Trend test, and no significant difference was observed (Pearson chi-square, p = 0.155; Likelihood ratio, p = 0.151; Linear-by-linear association, p = 0.527). After adjustment for age, body mass index, metabolic syndrome c-reactive protein, prostate-specific antigen, prostate volume with ANCOVA and multiple logistic regression test, no significant associations were found between IPSS and NAFLD.
No significant associations were found between NAFLD and LUTS in middle-aged men, and the degree of NAFLD was not significantly associated with the severity of LUTS in trend. The role of NAFLD, in comparison with age, might be too small to change the LUTS.