Department of Hepatology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, 160012, India.
Sleep disturbances are common in patients of cirrhosis and has a significant effect on their health related quality of life (HRQOL). Thus far, no study has demonstrated a systematically studied significant correlation between the sleep disturbance observed and the neuropsychiatric impairment status of patients of cirrhosis. On the basis of PHES, we divided 100 cirrhotics into those having minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) (PHES≤-5) and those not (NMHE). Now, in these MHE (n=46) and NMHE (n=54) patients, sleep disturbance was measured with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and HRQOL with SF-36(v2) questionnaire. Sixty (60 %) patients were found to be 'poor sleepers' (PSQI>5) while 38 (38 %) patients had excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS≥11). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed MHE has significant effect among 'poor sleepers' (P<0.0001) as well as on those with EDS (P<0.0001). Significant correlation existed between PHES and both the sleep parameters of PSQI (r = -0.518, P <0.0001) as well as ESS (r = -0.383, P <0.0001), implying independently strong correlation between poor cognition and the presence of night time sleep disturbance and excessive daytime sleepiness among cirrhotics. Significant correlation existed between PSQI and ESS and the various scales and component scores of SF-36(v2) signifying the negative impact of sleep disturbance on the HRQOL. In conclusion, both night time sleep disturbance and excessive daytime sleepiness have significant relation with the neuropsychiatric impairment in patients of cirrhosis and are significantly associated with the observed impairment in HRQOL.