1University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.
Within the last few years, treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection has progressed beyond regimens containing the first-wave direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) boceprevir and telaprevir, which had high pill burdens as well as low efficacy and safety in treatment-experienced patients. Triple therapy regimens with newer second-wave DAAs combined with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV), have shown rates of sustained virological response never before achieved with previous regimens in treatment-naïve genotype 1 (HCV-1) patients. Additionally, increased response rates have been found with quadruple agent therapy in prior non-responders, partial-responders, and relapsers, including those with cirrhosis. This review will focus on the second-wave DAAs including protease inhibitors (PI), nucleotide inhibitors, and NS5B inhibitors combined with PEG-IFN and RBV for both treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced genotype 1 hepatitis C virus (HCV-1) infected patients. The current standard of care for treatment-naïve HCV-1 is the second-wave PI, sofosbuvir, plus PEG-IFN/RBV and sofosbuvir plus the second-wave nucleotide inhibitor simeprevir with or without RBV in treatment-experienced HCV-1 patients. These recommendations could change, especially for treatment-experienced patients based on the positive results obtained with the newest quadruple therapy studies.