1Department of Transplant Hepatology, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a common cause of chronic liver disease, and HCV-related cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are the leading causes for liver transplantation in the Western world. Recurrent infection of the transplanted liver allograft is universal in patients with detectable HCV viremia at the time of transplant and can cause a spectrum of disease, ranging from asymptomatic chronic infection to an aggressive fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. Recurrent HCV is more aggressive in the post-transplant population and is a leading cause of allograft loss, morbidity, and mortality. Historically, treatment of recurrent HCV has been limited by low rates of treatment success and high side effect profiles. Over the past few years, promising new therapies have emerged for the treatment of HCV that have high rates of sustained virological response without the need for interferon based regimens. In addition to being highly effective, these treatments have higher rates of adherence and a lower side effect profile. The purpose of this review is to summarize current therapies in recurrent HCV infection, to review the recent advances in therapy, and to highlight areas of ongoing research.