1University of Colorado, Denver, Aurora, CO.
2Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX.
3Columbia University, New York, NY.
4University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.
5Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA.
6Northwestern University, Chicago, IL.
7University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA. Electronic address: Norah.Terrault@ucsf.edu.
BACKGROUND & AIMS:
NS3/4A protease inhibitors, boceprevir or telaprevir, combined with peginterferon and ribavirin was the standard treatment for HCV genotype 1 and remains the only available direct antiviral drug based therapy in some countries. Efficacy and safety data in liver transplant recipients are limited.
This was a retrospective cohort study of 81 patients with genotype 1 HCV treated with boceprevir (10%) or telaprevir (90%) plus peginterferon and ribavirin at 6 US transplant centers (53% stage 3-4/4 fibrosis, 57% treatment experienced). The primary end point was undetectable HCV RNA 12 weeks after treatment completion (SVR12).
The intent-to-treat SVR12 rate was 63% (51/81). Patients with an extended rapid virologic response, (undetectable HCV RNA at 4 and 12 weeks after starting boceprevir or telaprevir), had a higher rate of SVR12 than all other patients (85% vs. 15%, p<0.001). Adverse effects were common; 21% of patients experienced hemoglobin <8 g/dL and 57% required blood transfusions during the first 16 weeks. Twenty seven percent were hospitalized and 9% died; all were liver-related.
The addition of boceprevir or telaprevir to peginterferon and ribavirin yields SVR12 of 63% in liver transplant recipients with genotype 1 recurrent HCV, despite a high prevalence of advanced fibrosis and prior non-response to peginterferon and ribavirin. Rapid virologic response predicted a high likelihood of SVR. Despite a doubling of SVR rates, poor tolerability and high rates of adverse events were frequent and pose barriers to its widespread application.