1Abhijeet Waghray, Department of Medicine, MetroHealth Medical Center/Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44109, United States.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most prevalent malignancy worldwide and is a rising cause of cancer related mortality. Risk factors for HCC are well documented and effective surveillance and early diagnosis allow for curative therapies. The majority of HCC appears to be caused by cirrhosis from chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus. Preventive strategies include vaccination programs and anti-viral treatments. Surveillance with ultrasonography detects early stage disease and improves survival rates. Many treatment options exist for individuals with HCC and are determined by stage of presentation. Liver transplantation is offered to patients who are within the Milan criteria and are not candidates for hepatic resection. In patients with advanced stage disease, sorafenib shows some survival benefit.