1Hepatology, Department of Clinical Research, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland; University Clinic of Visceral Surgery and Medicine, Inselspital Berne, Berne, Switzerland.
2Department of Visceral & Transplantation Surgery, University Hospital Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
3Hepatology, Department of Clinical Research, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland; University Clinic of Visceral Surgery and Medicine, Inselspital Berne, Berne, Switzerland. Electronic address: email@example.com.
The majority of hepatocellular carcinoma occurs over pre-existing chronic liver diseases that share cirrhosis as an endpoint. In the last decade, a strong association between lifestyle and hepatocellular carcinoma has become evident. Abundance of energy-rich food and sedentary lifestyles have caused metabolic conditions such as obesity and diabetes mellitus to become global epidemics. Obesity and diabetes mellitus are both tightly linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and also increase hepatocellular carcinoma risk independent of cirrhosis. Emerging data suggest that physical activity not only counteracts obesity, diabetes mellitus and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, but also reduces cancer risk. Physical activity exerts significant anticancer effects in the absence of metabolic disorders. Here, we present a systematic review on lifestyles and hepatocellular carcinoma.