1Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8124, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA, email@example.com.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an increasing problem in the USA and worldwide. Current treatments for HCC include chemoembolization, radioembolization, liver resection, and liver transplantation in the setting of selected cirrhotic patients. Liver transplantation for HCC was controversial initially, but is now widely accepted as a curative approach. Cirrhotic patients who meet standards for transplantation and have a tumor burden within Milan criteria are eligible for transplantation and receive Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) exception points once listed. Given the decline in availability of donor organs, rewarding MELD exception points and performing liver transplants in these patients remain controversial. Despite this, various guidelines propose expanding eligibility criteria for cirrhotics with HCC, due to post-transplant outcomes comparable to patients transplanted without HCC. Following the transplant, issues include optimizing the type and amount of immunosuppression and screening for and treating recurrence of HCC.