1Department of Infectious Diseases, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310016, P.R. China.
2State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310016, P.R. China.
Adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) is an effective antiviral drug against hepatitis B virus. The renal tolerance of ADV at the currently approved dose of 10 mg daily for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remains controversial. The present meta-analysis was therefore performed to evaluate the renal safety of ADV treatment in patients with CHB. Two independent investigators searched MEDLINE, Embase and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases for eligible studies published in English or Chinese until June 1, 2014. The Peto odds ratios (Peto ORs) or the rates of each study were analyzed. Seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs), four cohort studies and six single-arm studies were identified. ADV treatment was not associated with a higher incidence of nephrotoxicity in RCTs [Peto OR, 1.781; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.637-4.979; P=0.271] but appeared to increase nephrotoxicity significantly in cohort studies (Peto OR, 2.682; 95% CI, 1.470-4.894; P=0.001); the significant increase was further observed in CHB patients receiving long-term ADV treatment in cohort studies (Peto OR, 2.275; 95% CI, 1.127-4.593; P=0.022). The analysis based on single-arm studies showed that the rate of renal dysfunction in the ADV-treated patients was 10.6% (95% CI, 0.059-0.185); the subgroup analysis with the standard of createnine levels showed a lower rate (6.9%, 95% CI, 0.013-0.298) than those in the overall studies. In conclusion, although current evidence indicated a positive link between treatment with ADV in CHB patients and an increased risk of renal dysfunction, optimally designed studies are required for definitive conclusions.