1Immunization Services Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC.
Overall, the prevalence of illness attributable to vaccine-preventable diseases is greater among adults than among children. Adults are recommended to receive vaccinations based on their age, underlying medical conditions, lifestyle, prior vaccinations, and other considerations. Updated vaccination recommendations from CDC are published annually in the U.S. Adult Immunization Schedule. Despite longstanding recommendations for use of many vaccines, vaccination coverage among U.S. adults is low.
August 2013-June 2014 (for influenza vaccination) and January-December 2014 (for pneumococcal, tetanus and diphtheria [Td] and tetanus and diphtheria with acellular pertussis [Tdap], hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes zoster, and human papillomavirus [HPV] vaccination).
DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM:
The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is a continuous, cross-sectional national household survey of the noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian population. In-person interviews are conducted throughout the year in a probability sample of households, and NHIS data are compiled and released annually. The survey objective is to monitor the health of the U.S. population and provide estimates of health indicators, health care use and access, and health-related behaviors.
Compared with data from the 2013 NHIS, increases in vaccination coverage occurred for Tdap vaccine among adults aged ≥19 years (a 2.9 percentage point increase to 20.1%) and herpes zoster vaccine among adults aged ≥60 years (a 3.6 percentage point increase to 27.9%). Aside from these modest improvements, vaccination coverage among adults in 2014 was similar to estimates from 2013 (for influenza coverage, similar to the 2012-13 season). Influenza vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥19 years was 43.2%. Pneumococcal vaccination coverage among high-risk persons aged 19-64 years was 20.3% and among adults aged ≥65 years was 61.3%. Td vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥19 years was 62.2%. Hepatitis A vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥19 years was 9.0%. Hepatitis B vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥19 years was 24.5%. HPV vaccination coverage among adults aged 19-26 years was 40.2% for females and 8.2% for males. Racial/ethnic differences in coverage persisted for all seven vaccines, with higher coverage generally for whites compared with most other groups. Adults without health insurance were significantly less likely than those with health insurance to report receipt of influenza vaccine (aged ≥19 years), pneumococcal vaccine (aged 19-64 years with high-risk conditions and aged ≥65 years), Td vaccine (aged ≥19 years), Tdap vaccine (aged ≥19 years and 19-64 years), hepatitis A vaccine (aged ≥19 years overall and among travelers), hepatitis B vaccine (aged ≥19 years, 19-49 years, and 19-59 years with diabetes), herpes zoster vaccine (aged ≥60 years and 60-64 years), and HPV vaccine (females aged 19-26 years and males aged 19-26 years). Adults who reported having a usual place for health care generally were more likely to receive recommended vaccinations than those who did not have a usual place for health care, regardless of whether they had health insurance. Vaccination coverage was significantly higher among those reporting one or more physician contacts in the past year compared with those who had not visited a physician in the past year, regardless of whether they had health insurance. Even among adults who had health insurance and ≥10 physician contacts within the past year, 23.8%-88.8% reported not having received vaccinations that were recommended either for all persons or for those with some specific indication. Overall, vaccination coverage among U.S.-born respondents was significantly higher than that of foreign-born respondents with few exceptions (influenza vaccination [adults aged 19-49 years], hepatitis A vaccination [adults aged ≥19 years], hepatitis B vaccination [adults with diabetes aged ≥60 years], and HPV vaccination [males aged 19-26 years]).
Overall, increases in adult vaccination coverage are needed. Although modest gains occurred in Tdap vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥19 years and herpes zoster vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥60 years, coverage for other vaccines and risk groups did not improve, and racial/ethnic disparities persisted for routinely recommended adult vaccines. Coverage for all vaccines for adults remained low, and missed opportunities to vaccinate adults continued. Although having health insurance coverage and a usual place for health care are associated with higher vaccination coverage, these factors alone do not assure optimal adult vaccination coverage.
PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS:
Assessing associations with vaccination is important for understanding factors that contribute to low coverage rates and to disparities in vaccination, and for implementing strategies to improve vaccination coverage. Practices that have been demonstrated to improve vaccination coverage should be used. These practices include assessment of patients' vaccination indications by health care providers and routine recommendation and offer of needed vaccines to adults, implementation of reminder-recall systems, use of standing-order programs for vaccination, and assessment of practice-level vaccination rates with feedback to staff members. For vaccination to be improved among those least likely to be up-to-date on recommended adult vaccines, efforts also are needed to identify adults who do not have a regular provider or insurance and who report fewer health care visits.